Yakupova Dar'ya Viktorovna, Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of Russian history and history teaching methods, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yakupov Roman Aleksandrovich, Candidate of historical sciences, scientific project’s team member, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Background. In 2019, Russian society celebrated the 30th anniversary of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Despite a wide range of different sources, documentary information about the motivation of the Soviet leadership in deciding on the deployment of troops is still closed today. Research interest in the topic was also caused by the growing opposition of the Russian Federation and the United States in the modern period, as well as the resumption of active counterdefense of Russia’s geopolitical interests in the Middle East (Syria). How and for what reasons did social interaction change in Soviet society against the backdrop of foreign policy expansion and is this historical experience a natural factor in the intrastate destabilization of the USSR? This article is dedicated to finding answers to these questions.
Materials and methods. The study was prepared on the basis of a wide range of sources. For the first time, data is entered into scientific circulation, both foreign (electronic archives of the CIA of the USA, Archives of US National Security), and domestic origin (GARF, RGANI, RGASPI). In work the problem-chronological, comparative historical and other research methods were used. As part of the study of the topic, we turned to the method of structuralism: it is proposed to consider domestic policy in the USSR in the context of studying the structural elements of CIA analytics, which monitored the foreign and domestic policies of the Soviet state.
Results. The article reflects the perception by analysts of the Central Intelligence Agency of the US of the dynamics of socio-political life in the USSR after the introduction of Soviet troops in Afghanistan in 1979. The study of the internal political state of the USSR made it possible to take a fresh look at the actions of the Soviet leadership on the decision to deploy troops in Afghanistan. A hypothesis is put forward about the similarity of assessments of American intelligence processes in the Soviet Union and the United States during the Vietnam War. A whole range of questions that fell into the monitoring of the CIA made it possible to analyze a number of causal relationships of social relations that developed in 1979–1989 in the Soviet Union. Data on the Soviet society’s perception of the Afghan war and the social consequences of sending more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers are being introduced into the scientific community.
Conclusions. The trends of the serious costs of the Soviet state due to the provision of “direct” assistance to Afghanistan (construction and development of engineering infrastructure, humanitarian supplies) are shown. The complex of social problems stands out, which the USSR had to face against the background of warfare and the spread of the humanistic concept of “human rights”: the start of the policy of “glasnost”, the growth of protest activity and pacifism, the reactionary policy in the form of combating dissent, the growth of national and ethnic tensions in the republics The USSR, increased drug trafficking, etc. For the first time, comprehensive information is provided on anti-war protest actions in the Soviet Union related to the dispatch of soldiers to Afghanistan. It turns out that the active foreign policy of the USSR in Afghanistan was, on the one hand, a factor in the regressive dynamics of Soviet society, and on the other, it was aimed at the non-proliferation of radical Islam and drug trafficking.
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