Article 7219

Title of the article

SOVIET SOCIETY AND THE WAR IN AFGHANISTAN IN THE CIA ASSESSMENTS 

Authors

Yakupova Dar'ya Viktorovna, Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of Russian history and history teaching methods, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: bubnova90@mail.ru
Yakupov Roman Aleksandrovich, Candidate of historical sciences, scientific project’s team member, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: penza.pr58@mail.ru 

Index UDK

94 (470+73) 

DOI

10.21685/2072-3024-2019-2-7 

Abstract

Background. In 2019, Russian society celebrated the 30th anniversary of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Despite a wide range of different sources, documentary information about the motivation of the Soviet leadership in deciding on the deployment of troops is still closed today. Research interest in the topic was also caused by the growing opposition of the Russian Federation and the United States in the modern period, as well as the resumption of active counterdefense of Russia’s geopolitical interests in the Middle East (Syria). How and for what reasons did social interaction change in Soviet society against the backdrop of foreign policy expansion and is this historical experience a natural factor in the intrastate destabilization of the USSR? This article is dedicated to finding answers to these questions.
Materials and methods. The study was prepared on the basis of a wide range of sources. For the first time, data is entered into scientific circulation, both foreign (electronic archives of the CIA of the USA, Archives of US National Security), and domestic origin (GARF, RGANI, RGASPI). In work the problem-chronological, comparative historical and other research methods were used. As part of the study of the topic, we turned to the method of structuralism: it is proposed to consider domestic policy in the USSR in the context of studying the structural elements of CIA analytics, which monitored the foreign and domestic policies of the Soviet state.
Results. The article reflects the perception by analysts of the Central Intelligence Agency of the US of the dynamics of socio-political life in the USSR after the introduction of Soviet troops in Afghanistan in 1979. The study of the internal political state of the USSR made it possible to take a fresh look at the actions of the Soviet leadership on the decision to deploy troops in Afghanistan. A hypothesis is put forward about the similarity of assessments of American intelligence processes in the Soviet Union and the United States during the Vietnam War. A whole range of questions that fell into the monitoring of the CIA made it possible to analyze a number of causal relationships of social relations that developed in 1979–1989 in the Soviet Union. Data on the Soviet society’s perception of the Afghan war and the social consequences of sending more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers are being introduced into the scientific community.
Conclusions. The trends of the serious costs of the Soviet state due to the provision of “direct” assistance to Afghanistan (construction and development of engineering infrastructure, humanitarian supplies) are shown. The complex of social problems stands out, which the USSR had to face against the background of warfare and the spread of the humanistic concept of “human rights”: the start of the policy of “glasnost”, the growth of protest activity and pacifism, the reactionary policy in the form of combating dissent, the growth of national and ethnic tensions in the republics The USSR, increased drug trafficking, etc. For the first time, comprehensive information is provided on anti-war protest actions in the Soviet Union related to the dispatch of soldiers to Afghanistan. It turns out that the active foreign policy of the USSR in Afghanistan was, on the one hand, a factor in the regressive dynamics of Soviet society, and on the other, it was aimed at the non-proliferation of radical Islam and drug trafficking. 

Key words

USSR, domestic policy, Central Intelligence Agency, Afghanistan, anti-war actions, protest movement 

 

 Download PDF

References

1. Reuveny R., Prakash A. Review of International Studies. 1999, vol. 25, pp. 693–708.
2. Myasnikov G. V. Stranitsy iz dnevnika [Pages from the diary]. Moscow: Tipografiya ANO «Institut natsional'nykh problem obrazovaniya», 2008, 776 p. [In Russian]
3. Gosudarstvennyy arkhiv Rossiyskoy Federatsii (GARF) [State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF)]. F. 5446. Op. 135. D. 1042. [In Russian]
4. Issue paper U.S.-U.S.S.R. Grain agreement. Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: 
https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp83m00914r002300010029-9 (accessed Dec. 01, 2018).
5. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 136. D. 991. L. 1–14. [In Russian]
6. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 140. D. 1092. [In Russian]
7. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 162. D. 1515. [In Russian]
8. USSR: domestic fallout from the Afghan war. Central Intelligence Agency. Available at:
https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp89t01451r000100090001-5 (accessed Dec. 01, 2018).
9. Afghanistan’s food balance: implications for the regime and the insurgents. Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp87t01127r001201050003-6 (accessed Febr. 03, 2018).
10. Nabat M. M. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Ser. 13, Vostokovedenie i afrikanistika [Bulletin of Saint-Petersburg University. Series 13, Oriental and African studies]. 2018, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 118–132. [In Russian]
11. Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv noveyshey istorii (RGANI) [Russian State Archive of Contemporary History (RGANI)]. F. 89. Op. 10. D. 46. [In Russian]
12. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 148. D. 129. L. 29. [In Russian]
13. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 162. D. 620. L. 2–36. [In Russian]
14. Soviet military operations in Afghanistan: costs and implications for the economy. Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp08s01350r000100200001-4 (accessed Dec. 02, 2018).
15. Domestic costs to the soviet regime of involvement in Afghanistan. Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp85t00287r001401010001-6 (accessed Jan. 27, 2019).
16. Pervyy s"ezd deputatov Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR. Stenograficheskiy otchet: v 6 t. [First congress of deputies of the Supreme Council of the USSR. Verbatim record: in 6 volumes]. Moscow: Izdanie Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR, 1989, vol. III, 448 p. [In Russian]
17. USSR: the cost of aid to communist states. Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: 
ttps://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp83m00914r001900220025-5 (accessed Jan. 02, 2019).
18. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 147. D. 1672. [In Russian]
19. Grossman A. S. Voprosy istorii [Historical issues]. 1993, no. 3, pp. 3–33. [In Russian]
20. USSR news brief bulletin. 1982, 15 May, no. 9.
21. Soviet Dissent and Its Repression Since the 1975 Helsinki Accords. July 10, 1985. National Security Archive. Available at: https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/dc.html?doc=2839067-Document-6 (accessed Jan. 05, 2019).
22. Alekseeva L. M. Istoriya inakomysliya v SSSR: Noveyshiy period [The history of dissent in the USSR: the contemporary period]. Moscow: Zatsepa, 2001, 382 p. [In Russian]
23. USSR news brief bulletin. 1982, 15 November, no. 20/21.
24. RGANI. F. 89. Op. 55. D. 1. [In Russian]
25. Chernyavskiy A. V. Vneshnyaya politika SSSR v obshchestvennom mnenii sovetskikh grazhdan 1964–1982 gg.: avtoref. dis. kand. ist. nauk [Externalpolicy of the USSR in the public opinion of soviet citizens in 1964–1982: author’s abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of historical sciences]. Moscow, 2017, 26 p. [In Russian]
26. Kuzhilin S. F. Deyatel'nost' mestnykh organov voennogo upravleniya, administratsii i obshchestvennykh organizatsiy po voenno-patrioticheskomu vospitaniyu molodezhi v 1980–2000 gg.: na materialakh Samarskoy oblasti: dis. kand. ist. nauk [Activities of local military administration bodies, administration and public organization in the scope of military-patriotic education of youth in 1980–2000: on materials of Samara region: dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of historical sciences]. Samara, 2002, p. 247. [In Russian]
27. Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv sotsial'no-politicheskoy istorii (RGASPI) [Russian State Archive of Sociopolitical History (RGASPI)]. F.M-1. Op. 63. D. 1–36. [In Russian]
28. Mogirev S. Istoriya SShA: upotreblenie narkotikov v amerikanskoy armii vo vremya V'etnamskoy voyny [The USA history: drug consumption in the US army during the Vietnam War]. Available at: https://ushistory.ru/populjarnaja-literatura/437-upotreblenie-narkotikov-v-amerikanskoj-armii-vo-vremja-vetnamskoj-vojny (accessed Dec. 22, 2018). [In Russian]
29. Vedomosti VS SSSR [Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the USSR]. 1982, no. 48, art. 891. [In Russian]
30. Grigor'ev O. V. Obshchestvo i pravo [Sociaty and law]. 2013, no. 3 (45), pp. 42–45. [In Russian]
31. GARF. F. 9654. Op. 10. D. 160. [In Russian]
32. Gromov B. V. Ogranichennyy kontingent [Limited contingent]. Moscow: Progress, 1994, 352 p. [In Russian]
33. Toporkov V. M. Natsional'nye interesy: prioritety i bezopasnost' [National interests: priorities and security]. 2012, no. 26, pp. 54–62. [In Russian]
34. The politics of russian nationalisms. Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: https://
www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/0000499833 (accessed Jan. 04, 2019).
35. Kollinz R. Makroistoriya: ocherki sotsiologii bol'shoy dlitel'nosti [Macrohistory: essays on long-term sociology]; transl. from Engl. by N. S. Rozov. Moscow: URSS: Lenand, 2015, 504 p. [In Russian]
36. RGANI. F. 89. Op. 11. D. 138. [In Russian]
37. U.S. Marshals and the Pentagon Riot of October 21, 1967. Available at: https://www.usmarshals.gov/history/civilian/1967a.html (accessed Jan. 26, 2019).
38. Vedomosti VS SSSR [Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the USSR]. 1988, no. 31, art. 504. [In Russian]
39. Ob ob"yavlenii dnya otryadov militsii osobogo naznacheniya: Prikaz MVD RF № 190 ot 01.03.2002 [On declaration of the day of special task police forces: Order of the MIA of Russia No 190 of 01.03.2002]. RRS “ConsultantPlus”. Available at: https://www.
consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?reg=doc&base=EXP&n=639721#06693539112924018 [In Russian]
40. Pervyy s"ezd deputatov Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR. Stenograficheskiy otchet: v 6 t. [First congress of deputies of the Supreme Council of the USSR. Verbatim record: in 6 volumes]. Moscow: Izdanie Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR, 1989, vol. I, 575 p. [In Russian]
41. Pervyy s"ezd deputatov Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR. Stenograficheskiy otchet: v 6 t. [First congress of deputies of the Supreme Council of the USSR. Verbatim record: in 6 volumes]. Moscow: Izdanie Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR, 1989, vol. II, 480 p. [In Russian]
42. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 163. D. 1092. L. 12, 96, 129. [In Russian]
43. GARF. F. R. 9654. Op. 7. D. 642, 696, 769, 1314. [In Russian]
44. Vedomosti SND i VS RSFSR [Bulletin of CPD and SC of the USSR]. 1991, 5 Dec., no. 49, art. 1727. [In Russian]
45. Vedomosti SND i VS RSFSR [Bulletin of CPD and SC of the USSR]. 1992, 23 Apr., no. 17, art. 924. [In Russian]
46. Arkhiv Prezidentskogo tsentra B. N. El'tsina [Archive of Eltsin Presidential Center]. F. 6. Op. 1. D. 32. L. 58–84. [In Russian]
47. RGASPI. F.M-3. Op. 13. D. 1–5. [In Russian]
48. GARF. F. 5446. Op. 162. D. 1864. [In Russian]
49. Vedomosti SND SSSR i VS SSSR [Bulletin of CPD and SC of the USSR]. 1991, no. 41, art. 1156. [In Russian]
50. Shchepetin A. V. Srednerusskiy vestnik obshchestvennykh nauk [Middle Russia bulletin of social sciences]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 187–192. [In Russian]
51. Smirnov V. Kommersant" [Businessman]. 2001, 22 Jun., no. 107. [In Russian]
52. Belyaev I. Radio «Svoboda». Available at: https://www.svoboda.org/a/25192265.html (accessed Jan. 04, 2019). [In Russian]
53. K sovesti: gazeta Leningradskikh «Afgantsev» [To conscience: newspaper of Leningrad’s Afganistan war veterans]. Leningrad, 1991. [In Russian]
54. Pobratim: gazeta Soyuza veteranov Afganistana [Sworn brother: newspaper of the Union of Afganistan war veterans]. Moscow, 1989. [In Russian]
55. Kommersant" Vlast' [Business” Power]. 2009, 16 Febr., no. 6. [In Russian]
56. Interfaks [Interfax]. Moscow, 2014. Available at: https://www.interfax.ru/russia/357377 (accessed Jan. 27, 2019). [In Russian] 

 

Дата создания: 17.09.2019 16:02
Дата обновления: 19.09.2019 08:32